Storage of apples in controlled atmosphere chamber
There are different methods of long storage of apples. Controlled atmosphere chambers are one of the most effective methods on preservation of initial appearance and nutrients.
One of the main conditions of long storage is anabiosis method. Partial destruction of life-circle process prevents loss of color, aroma and ripeness. However, low temperature in the chamber negatively affects marketable conditions of fruits. Apples change color and tastiness.
In this case it is better to use controlled atmosphere chamber, which will help you to change composition of gas atmosphere in accordance with your requirements and extend storage life by several times.
UzHolod Company is well versed in the technology of fruits and vegetables storage. Our specialists not only design cold stores but also install them.
Many-year experience in this field allows us to make competent calculations and select equipment taking into account all customer’s requirements.
Storage of products in controlled atmosphere chamber: features
Demand for fruits storage in controlled atmosphere chambers is increased due to a great number of advantages of this method. One of the main advantages of this method is the possibility of increase of storage life, preservation of nutrients and marketable conditions.
With the help of change of percentage of oxygene and carbon dioxide in atmosphere in storehouse one can prevent mold generation and preserve color, shape and nutrients. Thus, fruits preserve their initial appearance.
In controlled atmosphere chambers you can also store varieties, which can’t be stored at low temperature.
What varieties of apples can be stored in controlled atmosphere chambers?
It is recommended to store winter varieties of apples in controlled atmosphere chambers, such as “Aidared”, “Hercules”, “Golden delicious”, “Makintosh”, “Red delicious” and other. Late-winter varieties differ by high storeability and preservation of initial characteristics.
When gathering, it is important to take into account stage of ripeness, which is determined by such signs as:
- color of skin;
- color of seeds;
- starch presence.
During the gathering, manual sorting is carried out, during of which overripen or unripen, as well as damaged fruits.
Internal equipment of controlled atmosphere chamber
Controlled atmosphere chamber must be equipped with high quality hermetic doors that guarantee microclimate stability.
Azot generators, adsorbers, ethylene converters, as well as gas analyse and automatic control systems are installed in the chamber.
There is also programm for control of production and regulation of temperature conditions in the chamber. If necessary, remote control is provided.
Modern equipment for controlled atmosphere chamber is characterized by wide functionality. It allows to carry out quick reduction of oxygene concentration, prevents the development of pathological processes and increase the level of ethylene in fruits.
Equipment selection for chamber should be carried out by professionals. During selection it is necessary to take into account sheme of cooling, power, technical characteristics of equipmnet and other nuances. Our specialists will always help to select a suitable equipment.
Chamber preparation and fruits placement
Controlled atmosphere chamber consists of chambers, the capacity of which may vary from 50 to 300 t. Before apples placement, the chamber is desinfected, sealed and checked for operability.
At this stage the temperature condition is 0°C. It is not worth storing apples of different varieties, except for fruits with the same storeability and stage of ripeness.
When placing fruits, it is necessary to take into account the space for free air circulation. Max. height of stack of boxes is 6m. The limit of one stack of boxes is 250-300 kg/m².
Rules of fruits storage in controlled atmosphere chambers
Temperature of storage depends on variety of apples. So, such apples as “Belle Boskop”, “Canadian rennet”, “Cox orange” are stored at temperature 3-4 °С. “Golden delicious”, “Mucu”, “Spartan” – 0-2 °С. “Jonatan”, “Granny Smit”, “Richard” – 0-4 °С.
Humidity – 90-95%. Speed of circulation of gas mixture – 0, 25 m/s at rate 40 volumes/ hour (when cooling apples) and 20 volumes/hour (after finishing cooling).
The composition of gas medium also depends on variety. Oxygene concentration varies from 2 to 4%, carbon dioxide – from 0 to 5%.
Storage life of apples
Storage life depends on several factors, such as variety, quality of sorting, parameters of gas environment and others.
Most of varieties are intended for storage from 150 to 180 days, some of them – up to 240 days.
Process monitoring for precise maintenance of preset temperature and humidity parameters, as well as gas and carbon dioxide concentration must be carried out continuously.
Quality of products is also chaked regularly. It is worth noting that the longer storage life the more often monitoring process should be carried out. If there are problems, it is important to determine its cause and adjust the parameters of gas environment.
It is also not recommended to carry out apples unloading immediately after the end of the storage period. It is necessary to open the doors and turn on a fan for 2 hours. It is forbidden to enter the chamber until carbon dioxide is removed.
In order to prevent condensate formation on apples, it is necessary to raise the temperature to optimum values for outdoor storage.
Design and fitout of controlled atmosphere chambers
UzHolod Company is engaged in the design and equipment of controlled atmosphere chambers. After representation all necessary information (location and size of chamber, internal fitout) our engineers will offer several options different in cost. After project approval, they will make all necessary calculations and select a suitable equipment.
Great experience allows us to perform high quality services in a professional leveal in record time. We are the company that provides a full range of services and specialized in the design, installation and maintenance of refrigeration equipment.
If you need complete diagnostics, repair or maintenance of refrigeration units, call our company! We work all over Uzbekistan (Bukhara, Samarkand, Navoi, Namangan) and other cities of our Republic.